Tag Archives: Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica

KAZAKHSTAN ELECTIONS : FREE AND FAIR PREPARATIONS SAYS ROMANIA

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On 28 of March 2011 the Commission of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation for preparing the Monitoring Mission in Republic of Kazakhstan presented the public preliminary report regarding the pre-election monitoring of Kazakhstan Presidential poll.

Professor Anton Caragea presented the main high-lights of the report: Kazakhstan electoral law, Kazakhstan electoral commission activities and mass media and domestic and international observer’s presence for the poll.

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea meets the Kazakh Central Electoral Commission Chairman when supervising 2007 parliamentary elections.

The preliminary assessment of the preparation for Presidential Election in Kazakhstan is that: ″Kazakhstan Government is insuring an open and fair climate, with equal opportunities for all candidates and with mass media and international and domestic observers’ presence and we consider that preliminary measures are in accordance with international law and elections provisions and the democratic nature of  election process in Kazakhstan  is self evident″.

A clear endorsement of the Kazakhstan pre-election preparation to hold free and open Presidential elections is the conclusion of the IRICE Commission for preparing the Monitoring Mission in Republic of Kazakhstan.

Based on this report Professor Anton Caragea accepted to lead a monitoring mission for Kazakhstan Presidential Election. This the eight such mission and the second in Kazakhstan all of the mission being a success and in six of this missions the final report of IRICE was accepted as an European document and evaluation report .

In 2007 a delegation from Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation has supervised the elections for Madjilis ( the Lower House of Kazakhstan Parliament ) in august 2007 with a great success supporting the democratic process in Kazakhstan.

″We are not accepting such a monitoring mission if we don’t have the confidence that the organizing state is committed in respecting fundamental values and democratic process″, declared Professor Anton Caragea, IRICE director.  Romanian support and commitment for Kazakhstan democratic process and development is a long term commitment and the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania decision in strengthening relations between Romanian and Kazakhstan is unwavering stated professor Anton Caragea.

Romania has being a long side Kazakhstan in 2010 , when Kazakhstan held the Chair Office of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and we have organized the OSCE Bucharest Conference. Kazakhstan Presidency to send a public message to international community that Kazakhstan Presidency of OSCE will be a success and the message was acknowledge as such.

Today we are sending a new message , Kazakhstan is on a democratic path , is building free and open elections, is offering to the Kazakh people a clear chance to vote ,choose and express their views in a transparent manner. ″The pre-election commitments are clear and fulfilled by Kazakhstan government  and we will be on the spot to monitor and the final step of the election: Election Day and election results″ declared Professor Dr. Anton Caragea director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation.

 

PETRU LIFICIU – THE RENAMED EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST REWARDED WITH ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE FOR 2011

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The Academic Council of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania decided to confer the prestigious ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD FOR 2011 to Mr. Petru Lificiu book NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA.

The book was selected for this prestigious prize as it is the first work that is creating a complete and extensive inventory on the wealth on national Romanian patrimony. The work is well organized and structured in order to offer to specialist and non-specialist alike a working instrument full with details and information’s necessary to create a national strategy for environmental protection. The information’s are extremely useful and scientific certified on : natural protected area, natural parks, biosphere reservation, humid areas of national importance, sites of natural universal patrimony , natural geology and paleontology reservation, protected area and tourism.

A plus of the work is the english language edition that is grating to international public direct access to high quality information’s regarding the extent and importance of natural Romanian patrimony. The english edition of NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA by Petru Lificiu is a novelty on national stage and is achieving a mission of special importance : creating a massive knowledge in the all world  regarding the extraordinary natural potential of Romania and supporting the acknowledgment of Romania as a exceptional value touristic destination on Europe`s map.

Another argument in favor of awarding the famous prize is the printing of the book in exceptional graphic conditions, accompanied by a few dozen of exceptional quality photos that are by itself true ambassadors of the beauties of our country in front of all the readers.

On 14 of April 2011 in a public ceremony on behalf of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania prof.dr. Anton Caragea will offer, accompanied by three ambassadors accredited to Bucharest, the prestigious (ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD to Mr. Petru Lificiu, the author of NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA.   The author, Petru Lificiu , former minister of environment and in present day Vice-President of ANRE ( National Agency for Energy ) is a well known political and cultural Romanian personality and specially known for his ecological  campaign and as a partisan of environmental protection in Romania.

On this occasion we congratulate the Ecological Forum of Romania that supported the publication of this volume, for the important contribution to raise national and international awareness of the natural patrimony values that are to be found in Romania. The information’s from NATURAL PATRIMONY OF ROMANIA book are offering the distinct possibility to create a national strategy of environment protection and tourism exploitation of this patrimony elements and are creating an exceptional editorial creation that is receiving the normal  appreciation by ROMANIAN BOOK PRIZE AWARD.

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea calls for peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula

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Pyongyang, March 1 (KCNA) — The U.S. and the south Korean bellicose forces finally kicked off large-scale war exercises against the DPRK, going against the unanimous aspiration and demand of the people at home and abroad for the peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula.

A spokesman for the DPRK Foreign Ministry Tuesday issued the following statement:

Key Resolve and Foal Eagle joint military exercises go to prove once again that the U.S. hostile policy to hinder the peaceful development of the DPRK in every way and stifle it by force of arms remains unchanged.

They are the U.S. exercises for a war of aggression against the DPRK to put pressure upon the East of the Asian Continent and thus put the whole of the Korean Peninsula under its military control. They are exercises for a nuclear war involving huge nuclear offensive means of the U.S. now under way according to an operational plan for making a preemptive nuclear attack on the DPRK.

The U.S. is talking about “provocations” from someone but the on-going joint military exercises cannot but be viewed as provocations. Given the fact that the international community unanimously expresses serious concern over the tense situation on the Korean Peninsula, this saber-rattling is itself a blatant provocation. The exercises whose purpose is to cope with the “contingency” of somebody and their nature suggests that they are the most serious provocation.

It was expected that south Korea would work hard to torpedo dialogue through all kinds of provocations to keep the confrontation prevailing between the north and the south.

As soon as the present south Korean authorities took power, they denied the reconciliation and cooperation between the north and the south. They are, therefore, under the political burden to justify their policy for escalating the confrontation at any cost till the next elections.

What merits a serious attention is a selfish aim of the U.S. to meet its strategic interests by taking advantage of such intention of the south Korean authorities. The U.S. is contemplating egging the south Korean authorities on to screw up the tension on the Korean Peninsula in a bid to round off the U.S.-Japan-south Korea triangular military alliance and establish military domination over this whole region.

The U.S. responded with its vicious military provocation to the DPRK’s proposal for avoiding actions which can be considered by each other as provocations and building confidence through dialogue and negotiations. It is nonsensical and hypocritical for the U.S. to talk about “sincere” dialogue, while kissing the south Korean authorities.

The DPRK has done what it can to make necessary dialogues successful as far as possible without any precondition, not webbed to modality of dialogue, prompted by the single desire to defuse the tension on the Korean Peninsula and ensure peace and stability there. The international community as a whole concerned about the escalating tension in the peninsula and the region is expressing positive support for the peace-loving efforts of the DPRK for dialogue.

The army and people of the DPRK are expressing irrepressible resentment at the U.S. for its high-handed act of staging the large-scale war maneuvers against the DPRK again quite contrary to the trend of the times.

Inevitable is the physical counter-action on the part of the army of the DPRK for self-defence. The hard-won opportunity of dialogue and detente is fading away.

The U.S. should be wholly accountable for all the consequences to be entailed by its military provocations.

The DPRK is ready for both dialogue and confrontation.

The U.S. would be well advised to know well that it would lose more than what it would gain by escalating the military tension on the peninsula.

DPRK EMBASSY IN ROMANIA

 

EUROPEAN UNION STATEMENTS ON SOUTH SUDAN INDEPENDENCE

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Catherine Ashton -High Representative for Foreign Policy and Security of European Union

“This is a historic moment for Sudan. The European Union (EU) commends the people of Southern Sudan and the Sudanese parties to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) on the peaceful and credible conduct of the Referendum on self-determination for Southern Sudan.

Despite many obstacles, the Sudanese Referendum authorities were able to organise a referendum in a timely and credible manner as witnessed by the EU Electoral Observation Mission. An overwhelming majority of registered voters participated and resoundingly expressed their determination to establish an independent state.

The EU fully respects the outcome of the Referendum as a true reflection of the democratically expressed wishes of the people of Southern Sudan. The EU looks forward to further developing a close and long-term partnership with Southern Sudan which is set to become a new state once the CPA expires in July 2011.

The EU welcomes the commitment of the Government of Sudan to respect the outcome of the Referendum.

In the coming months, the EU will continue to support the efforts of the parties to reach agreement on all outstanding CPA issues and the key post-referendum arrangements that will sustain the North-South relationship in the long term.

The EU remains committed to engage both North and South Sudan in the promotion of democratic governance, respect for human rights and a peaceful and prosperous future for all Sudanese people. In this context, the EU will step up its dialogue with both North and South and is ready to play its part in underpinning the development of two viable states.”

Professor Anton Caragea- PRESIDENT OF EUROPEAN COUNCIL ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

I  have received with enormous interest the official results regarding South Sudan Referendum on Self Determination . The people of South Sudan have spoken and have spoken with clarity on their desire to achieve independence. I congratulated the people and government of South Sudan on this historical result and I express my sincere appreciation on the peaceful and honorable way in which the referendum was organized and hosted. I also congratulate the President of Sudan H.E. Omar Al Bashir for the immediate and unconditional recognition of the South Sudan Referendum results.

I call upon all parties to manage a peaceful transition and to negotiate a comprehensible and honest agreement in order to build as President Omar Al Bashir underlined a brotherly relation between the two countries.

I also expressed to President of Southern Sudan H.E Salva Kiir Mayardit, upon his request, the openness of  European Council on International Relations to support the South Sudan efforts   on the path of independence and on building an open and free society, a democratic model for countries of Africa.

I also express our shared vision with High Representative for Foreign Policy and Security of European Union Catherine Ashton as it was laid out in the 7 of February European Union Communiqué that underlined the fact that : EU remains committed to engage both North and South Sudan in the promotion of democratic governance, respect for human rights and a peaceful and prosperous future for all Sudanese people. In this context, the EU will step up its dialogue with both North and South and is ready to play its part in underpinning the development of two viable states.

ROMANIA IS LEADING EUROPEAN UNION POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

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The bilateral relation Romania-Turkmenistan has become a rapidly increasing one after the opening of Turkmenistan Embassy in Romania. It could be considered that the bilateral relationship has grown with an outstanding speed becoming a strategic partnership. The visit of  Prime Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan H.E. Vepa Hagjyev for Romanian-European Union-Turkmen consultation in Bucharest between 24-26 January 2011 it is giving a new dimension and proof of the strength of bilateral relation.  On 24 of January 2011 H.E.  Prime Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan has held discussion with a Romanian delegation from European Council on International Relations and Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania headed by Professor Anton Caragea, President of  European Council on International Relations in order to build up a coherent strategy for further development and deepening of European Union – Romania-Turkmenistan relation.

Prime Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan H.E. Vepa Hagjyev and Professor Anton Caragea, President of  European Council on International Relations

 

In his speech Mr. Vepa Hajyev has praised the important part played by European Council on International Relations in the bilateral relation dynamic and asked for further support from European Council on International Relations and  Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation in building under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan a similar institution with the European Union and Romanian one.  Your successful experience in building a highly successful and influential Institute in the European politics will have his fruition for our part, underlined the distinguish guest. The discussions have touched on a variety of issues ranging from the preparative for a successful high level visit of President of Turkmenistan H.E. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov in Romania to economic cooperation. Professor Dr. Anton Caragea, President of   European Council on International Relations has emphasized the necessity to fulfill the bilateral agreements reached during his visit in Ashgabat in December 2010 in order to maintain the ascendant path in bilateral relation. So it was reiterated the opening of a European Union -Romanian-Turkmen Trilateral Economic Forum in 2011, of a Turkmen Art Exhibition, and to continue the cultural exchange program with more than 5 European union cultural delegations invited in Turkmenistan.

European Union -Romania-Turkmenistan: a successful political story

Concluding the discussion Mr. Vepa Hajyev has underlined in the European Union and Romanian  part approval that European Union -Romania-Turkmenistan trilateral political relation could be described as an excellent one, the cooperation in international organizations is also a fruition one and there are all the opportunities for becoming a strategic partnership. The official visit of Prime Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan was a new success of Romanian and European Union diplomacy and a new step in building a long term relation with the Central Asia region, especially with Turkmenistan a beacon of democracy, political stability and economic development in the area. The Romanian-Turkmenistan relation is becoming a model for European Union relationship building with Central Asia region.

MAN OF THE YEAR AWARD FOR 2010 SURPASS NOBEL PEACE PRIZE IN IMPORTANCE

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Foreign dignitaries , academic corp. member , professors warmly greeted professor Anton Caragea , president of European Council on International relations and director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania on the decision of awarding MAN OF THE YEAR title to President of Turkmenistan , H.E Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov . Professor Shirin Akiner from Cambridge University went as far as observing that MAN OF THE YEAR award has become this year more influential and less controversial than the Nobel Prize congratulating Romania for this decision.

Professor Shirin Akiner congratules prof.dr.Anton Caragea and Ambassador Shohrat Jumayev of Turkmenistan to Romania for MAN OF THE YEAR AWARD

 

OSCE Secretary General Marc Perrin de Brichambaut,

Secretary General of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), had arrived in Ashgabat to attend the OSCE Secretary General Marc Perrin de Brichambaut. The head of the authoritative international organisations congratulated the Turkmen leader on receiving the diploma of the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Professor Anton Caragea presence on the 15th anniversary of neutrality and the great success of the international forum dedicated to the national holiday.

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey Ahmet Davutoglu, had arrived in Ashgabat to participate in the celebration of the 15th anniversary of neutrality of Turkmenistan. Minister Ahmet Davutoglu congratulated the Turkmen leader on receiving the diploma of the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Professor Anton Caragea presence and the great success of the international forum dedicated to the national holiday. In this regard, the distinguished guest said that Turkey was proud to be one of the first states in 1995 to support the adoption of the United Nations Resolution on the Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan, the constructive foreign policy strategy of which due to President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov’s prudence stood today as a critical factor for peace and stability in the region.

Chairman of the CIS Executive Committee

Chairman of the Executive Committee, Executive Secretary of the Commonwealth of Independent States Sergei Lebedev, had arrived in Ashgabat to attend the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress and the celebrations in honour of the 15th anniversary of neutrality of Turkmenistan, at the Ruhiyet Palace. Expressing gratitude for the heartfelt welcome extended in the Turkmen land, the guest congratulated the President on receiving the diploma of the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Professor Anton Caragea presence and emphasized that he was glad to visit again Turkmenistan, which due to the Turkmen leader’s innovative, prudent policy had gained the reputation of being a dynamically developing country with the great future in the world arena. Another evidence for this was the high-level forum organized in Ashgabat, which had provided an open platform for an exchange of views on new approaches and forms of interstate cooperation, including issues of stability and security in Central Asia and all over the world.

ECO Secretary General

Mohammad Yahya Maroofi, Secretary General of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), who had arrived in Ashgabat to attend the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress, at the Ruhiyet Palace. Expressing gratitude for the opportunity of a personal meeting, the distinguished guest heartily congratulated the leader of the Turkmen state and the Turkmen people the 15th anniversary of neutrality of Turkmenistan. Mr Mohammed Yahya Maroufi emphasized that Turkmenistan’s open door policy and the Turkmen leader’s constructive initiatives on wide international cooperation had earned Turkmenistan the high international prestige. Another evidence for that was the presence of Professor Anton Caragea awarding the title of honour of “the Man of the Year” of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania to President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov and the presence of the Executive Committee of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania, said the ECO Secretary General.

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan Vladimir Norov,

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan, had arrived in the Turkmen capital to participate in the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress, at the Ruhiyet Palace. Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan congratulated President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov on receiving the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” awarded by the Executive Committee of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Professor Dr. Anton Caragea presence at the meeting noting that this award vividly testified to worldwide recognition of the outstanding achievements of the Turkmen leader, the author of the foreign policy neutral Turkmenistan and the strategy for fundamental progressive reforms, which had won the country had the high international prestige by the community.

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan Republic ,

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan Elmar Mamedyarov, who had arrived in Ashgabat to participate in the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress. The meeting took place in the Ruhiyet Palace, which had become the venue for the conference. The Azerbaijani Foreign Minister congratulated the Turkmen leader on receiving the prestigious title of “The Man of the Year” , of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and Professor Anton Caragea presence. He said that Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania, one of the major research centres in Europe.

UAE Minister of Culture, Youth and Community Development Abdul Rahman Mohammed Al Owais,

Minister of Culture, Youth and Community Development of the United Arab Emirates, who arrived in Ashgabat to attend the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress, in his residence at the Oguzkent Hotel. Emphasizing that the United Arab Emirates took great interest in large-scale progressive reforms launched in Turkmenistan on the initiative of the national leader and were sincerely proud in the achievements gained by Turkmen brothers, the guest congratulated President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov on receiving the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” by the Executive Committee of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and on the presence of professor Anton Caragea on the event .

Shanghai Cooperation Organization Secretary General ,

Muratbek Imanaliev, Secretary General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), who had arrived in Ashgabat to participate in the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress and the celebrations to mark the 15th anniversary of neutrality of Turkmenistan, at the Ruhiyet Palace. Greeting the leader of the Turkmen state, the distinguished guest congratulated Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov on the organisation of the high-level international forum in Ashgabat dedicated to the landmark date in the history of independent Turkmenistan as well as awarding the diploma of the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” to the Turkmen leader. The SCO Secretary-General noted that by pursuing the active, consistent peacekeeping policy, Turkmenistan demonstrated a responsible approach to international cooperation as illustrated by the Turkmen leader’s statement at the conference opening ceremony.

Organization of Islamic Conference

Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu at the Ruhiyet Palace, where the ceremony of opening the International Conference on Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan: Cooperation for Peace, Security and Progress had taken place. The head of the largest international organisation congratulated President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov on the success of the statement at the International Conference, the high level of which was another bright evidence for the growing prestige and role of Turkmenistan in the world arena and the 15th anniversary of neutrality of Turkmenistan celebrated widely in the country. taking an opportunity, Mr. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu congratulated the leader of the Turkmen state on receiving the title of honour of “The Man of the Year” warded by the Executive Committee of the Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation of Romania and emphasized that this event was a sign of wide recognition of an invaluable contribution made by President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov to strengthening peace, security and sustainable development.

 

NATO IS LOSING AFGHAN WAR AND ANY CREDIBILITY AFTER LISBON SUMMIT

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Lisbon Summit will be surely remembered as one of the lost opportunity of the North Atlantic Treaty to reform and to obtain a new significance in the XXI century. Instead of this, the Summit concentrated on an unwinnable war in Afghanistan and lost the sight of the fact that already Taliban’s are a force that can’t be uprooted from the country. No mention of the corruption and inefficiency that is crippling afghan army and administration and is making unthinkable the time line of 2014 for redraw from Afghanistan. After days of planning to win a war that is already lost on the ground the Summit turn his attention on the much anticipated European defense shield construction. Here also the summit did not produced any new information, still the same countries Romania and Bulgaria are accepting the defense shield while there are all the indication that Turkey will refuse the military installation on here soil. The Russia – NATO discussion was a new failure of this summit: Russia wanted security concern alleviated and a meaningful discussion on defense shield. Instead of this Russia was proposed an anti-Iran and anti-China partnership and support for President Dimitry Medvedev reform plans against Prime Minister Vladimir Putin conservative agenda. The new security concept of NATO that should have prepared the alliance for the new century  is still  the old one discussed in Bucharest in 2008 plus for convenience two lines on global warming and on cyber terrorism.

For Romania this a specially unfruitful summit as Romanian delegation goes unprepared to the summit and suffered serious humiliation from the part of    French and Italian delegation that refused even the protocol necessary contact. Supplementary Romania accepted the plan of missile defense shield without any security guarantee or material compensation (for comparison Turkey was offered a financial package of 40 billion euro for the same deal that Romania got nothing). Romanian national interests in Black Sea region where ignored but we received the honor of being the country that will head the next wave of antiterrorist war, a word    that is hiding the attack on Iran nuclear facilities. In conclusion if for Romania the Lisbon summit was an unprecedented humiliation for NATO it was a missed opportunity.

Strategic Concept for the Defence and Security of The Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation adopted by Heads of State and Government in Lisbon

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    1. NATO’s fundamental and enduring purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means. Today, the Alliance remains an essential source of stability in an unpredictable world.
    2. NATO member states form a unique community of values, committed to the principles of individual liberty, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. The Alliance is firmly committed to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and to the Washington Treaty, which affirms the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.
    3. The political and military bonds between Europe and North America have been forged in NATO since the Alliance was founded in 1949; the transatlantic link remains as strong, and as important to the preservation of Euro-Atlantic peace and security, as ever. The security of NATO members on both sides of the Atlantic is indivisible. We will continue to defend it together, on the basis of solidarity, shared purpose and fair burden-sharing.
    4. The modern security environment contains a broad and evolving set of challenges to the security of NATO’s territory and populations. In order to assure their security, the Alliance must and will continue fulfilling effectively three essential core tasks, all of which contribute to safeguarding Alliance members, and always in accordance with international law:
      1. Collective defence. NATO members will always assist each other against attack, in accordance with Article 5 of the Washington Treaty. That commitment remains firm and binding. NATO will deter and defend against any threat of aggression, and against emerging security challenges where they threaten the fundamental security of individual Allies or the Alliance as a whole.
      2. Crisis management. NATO has a unique and robust set of political and military capabilities to address the full spectrum of crises – before, during and after conflicts. NATO will actively employ an appropriate mix of those political and military tools to help manage developing crises that have the potential to affect Alliance security, before they escalate into conflicts; to stop ongoing conflicts where they affect Alliance security; and to help consolidate stability in post-conflict situations where that contributes to Euro-Atlantic security.
      3. Cooperative security. The Alliance is affected by, and can affect, political and security developments beyond its borders. The Alliance will engage actively to enhance international security, through partnership with relevant countries and other international organisations; by contributing actively to arms control, non-proliferation and disarmament; and by keeping the door to membership in the Alliance open to all European democracies that meet NATO’s standards.
    5. NATO remains the unique and essential transatlantic forum for consultations on all matters that affect the territorial integrity, political independence and security of its members, as set out in Article 4 of the Washington Treaty. Any security issue of interest to any Ally can be brought to the NATO table, to share information, exchange views and, where appropriate, forge common approaches.
    6. In order to carry out the full range of NATO missions as effectively and efficiently as possible, Allies will engage in a continuous process of reform, modernisation and transformation.
    1. Today, the Euro-Atlantic area is at peace and the threat of a conventional attack against NATO territory is low. That is an historic success for the policies of robust defence, Euro-Atlantic integration and active partnership that have guided NATO for more than half a century.
    2. However, the conventional threat cannot be ignored. Many regions and countries around the world are witnessing the acquisition of substantial, modern military capabilities with consequences for international stability and Euro-Atlantic security that are difficult to predict. This includes the proliferation of ballistic missiles, which poses a real and growing threat to the Euro-Atlantic area.
    3. The proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, and their means of delivery, threatens incalculable consequences for global stability and prosperity. During the next decade, proliferation will be most acute in some of the world’s most volatile regions.
    4. Terrorism poses a direct threat to the security of the citizens of NATO countries, and to international stability and prosperity more broadly. Extremist groups continue to spread to, and in, areas of strategic importance to the Alliance, and modern technology increases the threat and potential impact of terrorist attacks, in particular if terrorists were to acquire nuclear, chemical, biological or radiological capabilities.
    5. Instability or conflict beyond NATO borders can directly threaten Alliance security, including by fostering extremism, terrorism, and trans-national illegal activities such as trafficking in arms, narcotics and people.
    6. Cyber attacks are becoming more frequent, more organised and more costly in the damage that they inflict on government administrations, businesses, economies and potentially also transportation and supply networks and other critical infrastructure; they can reach a threshold that threatens national and Euro-Atlantic prosperity, security and stability. Foreign militaries and intelligence services, organised criminals, terrorist and/or extremist groups can each be the source of such attacks.
    7. All countries are increasingly reliant on the vital communication, transport and transit routes on which international trade, energy security and prosperity depend. They require greater international efforts to ensure their resilience against attack or disruption. Some NATO countries will become more dependent on foreign energy suppliers and in some cases, on foreign energy supply and distribution networks for their energy needs. As a larger share of world consumption is transported across the globe, energy supplies are increasingly exposed to disruption.
    8. A number of significant technology-related trends – including the development of laser weapons, electronic warfare and technologies that impede access to space – appear poised to have major global effects that will impact on NATO military planning and operations.
    9. Key environmental and resource constraints, including health risks, climate change, water scarcity and increasing energy needs will further shape the future security environment in areas of concern to NATO and have the potential to significantly affect NATO planning and operations.
    1. The greatest responsibility of the Alliance is to protect and defend our territory and our populations against attack, as set out in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty. The Alliance does not consider any country to be its adversary. However, no one should doubt NATO’s resolve if the security of any of its members were to be threatened.
    2. Deterrence, based on an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional capabilities, remains a core element of our overall strategy. The circumstances in which any use of nuclear weapons might have to be contemplated are extremely remote. As long as nuclear weapons exist, NATO will remain a nuclear alliance.
    3. The supreme guarantee of the security of the Allies is provided by the strategic nuclear forces of the Alliance, particularly those of the United States; the independent strategic nuclear forces of the United Kingdom and France, which have a deterrent role of their own, contribute to the overall deterrence and security of the Allies.
    4. We will ensure that NATO has the full range of capabilities necessary to deter and defend against any threat to the safety and security of our populations. Therefore, we will:
      • maintain an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces;
      • maintain the ability to sustain concurrent major joint operations and several smaller operations for collective defence and crisis response, including at strategic distance;
      • develop and maintain robust, mobile and deployable conventional forces to carry out both our Article 5 responsibilities and the Alliance’s expeditionary operations, including with the NATO Response Force;
      • carry out the necessary training, exercises, contingency planning and information exchange for assuring our defence against the full range of conventional and emerging security challenges, and provide appropriate visible assurance and reinforcement for all Allies;
      • ensure the broadest possible participation of Allies in collective defence planning on nuclear roles, in peacetime basing of nuclear forces, and in command, control and consultation arrangements;
      • develop the capability to defend our populations and territories against ballistic missile attack as a core element of our collective defence, which contributes to the indivisible security of the Alliance. We will actively seek cooperation on missile defence with Russia and other Euro-Atlantic partners;
      • further develop NATO’s capacity to defend against the threat of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons of mass destruction;
      • develop further our ability to prevent, detect, defend against and recover from cyber-attacks, including by using the NATO planning process to enhance and coordinate national cyber-defence capabilities, bringing all NATO bodies under centralized cyber protection, and better integrating NATO cyber awareness, warning and response with member nations;
      • enhance the capacity to detect and defend against international terrorism, including through enhanced analysis of the threat, more consultations with our partners, and the development of appropriate military capabilities, including to help train local forces to fight terrorism themselves;
      • develop the capacity to contribute to energy security, including protection of critical energy infrastructure and transit areas and lines, cooperation with partners, and consultations among Allies on the basis of strategic assessments and contingency planning;
      • ensure that the Alliance is at the front edge in assessing the security impact of emerging technologies, and that military planning takes the potential threats into account;
      • sustain the necessary levels of defence spending, so that our armed forces are sufficiently resourced;
      • continue to review NATO’s overall posture in deterring and defending against the full range of threats to the Alliance, taking into account changes to the evolving international security environment.
    1. Crises and conflicts beyond NATO’s borders can pose a direct threat to the security of Alliance territory and populations. NATO will therefore engage, where possible and when necessary, to prevent crises, manage crises, stabilize post-conflict situations and support reconstruction.
    2. The lessons learned from NATO operations, in particular in Afghanistan and the Western Balkans, make it clear that a comprehensive political, civilian and military approach is necessary for effective crisis management. The Alliance will engage actively with other international actors before, during and after crises to encourage collaborative analysis, planning and conduct of activities on the ground, in order to maximise coherence and effectiveness of the overall international effort.
    3. The best way to manage conflicts is to prevent them from happening. NATO will continually monitor and analyse the international environment to anticipate crises and, where appropriate, take active steps to prevent them from becoming larger conflicts.
    4. Where conflict prevention proves unsuccessful, NATO will be prepared and capable to manage ongoing hostilities. NATO has unique conflict management capacities, including the unparalleled capability to deploy and sustain robust military forces in the field. NATO-led operations have demonstrated the indispensable contribution the Alliance can make to international conflict management efforts.
    5. Even when conflict comes to an end, the international community must often provide continued support, to create the conditions for lasting stability. NATO will be prepared and capable to contribute to stabilisation and reconstruction, in close cooperation and consultation wherever possible with other relevant international actors.
    6. To be effective across the crisis management spectrum, we will:
      • enhance intelligence sharing within NATO, to better predict when crises might occur, and how they can best be prevented;
      • further develop doctrine and military capabilities for expeditionary operations, including counterinsurgency, stabilization and reconstruction operations;
      • form an appropriate but modest civilian crisis management capability to interface more effectively with civilian partners, building on the lessons learned from NATO-led operations. This capability may also be used to plan, employ and coordinate civilian activities until conditions allow for the transfer of those responsibilities and tasks to other actors;
      • enhance integrated civilian-military planning throughout the crisis spectrum,
      • develop the capability to train and develop local forces in crisis zones, so that local authorities are able, as quickly as possible, to maintain security without international assistance;
      • identify and train civilian specialists from member states, made available for rapid deployment by Allies for selected missions, able to work alongside our military personnel and civilian specialists from partner countries and institutions;
      • broaden and intensify the political consultations among Allies, and with partners, both on a regular basis and in dealing with all stages of a crisis – before, during and after.
    1. NATO seeks its security at the lowest possible level of forces. Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation contribute to peace, security and stability, and should ensure undiminished security for all Alliance members. We will continue to play our part in reinforcing arms control and in promoting disarmament of both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, as well as non-proliferation efforts:
      • We are resolved to seek a safer world for all and to create the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons in accordance with the goals of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, in a way that promotes international stability, and is based on the principle of undiminished security for all.
      • With the changes in the security environment since the end of the Cold War, we have dramatically reduced the number of nuclear weapons stationed in Europe and our reliance on nuclear weapons in NATO strategy. We will seek to create the conditions for further reductions in the future.
      • In any future reductions, our aim should be to seek Russian agreement to increase transparency on its nuclear weapons in Europe and relocate these weapons away from the territory of NATO members. Any further steps must take into account the disparity with the greater Russian stockpiles of short-range nuclear weapons.
      • We are committed to conventional arms control, which provides predictability, transparency and a means to keep armaments at the lowest possible level for stability. We will work to strengthen the conventional arms control regime in Europe on the basis of reciprocity, transparency and host-nation consent.
      • We will explore ways for our political means and military capabilities to contribute to international efforts to fight proliferation.
      • National decisions regarding arms control and disarmament may have an impact on the security of all Alliance members. We are committed to maintain, and develop as necessary, appropriate consultations among Allies on these issues.
    1. NATO’s enlargement has contributed substantially to the security of Allies; the prospect of further enlargement and the spirit of cooperative security have advanced stability in Europe more broadly. Our goal of a Europe whole and free, and sharing common values, would be best served by the eventual integration of all European countries that so desire into Euro-Atlantic structures.
      • The door to NATO membership remains fully open to all European democracies which share the values of our Alliance, which are willing and able to assume the responsibilities and obligations of membership, and whose inclusion can contribute to common security and stability.
    1. The promotion of Euro-Atlantic security is best assured through a wide network of partner relationships with countries and organisations around the globe. These partnerships make a concrete and valued contribution to the success of NATO’s fundamental tasks.
    2. Dialogue and cooperation with partners can make a concrete contribution to enhancing international security, to defending the values on which our Alliance is based, to NATO’s operations, and to preparing interested nations for membership of NATO. These relationships will be based on reciprocity, mutual benefit and mutual respect.
    3. We will enhance our partnerships through flexible formats that bring NATO and partners together – across and beyond existing frameworks:
      • We are prepared to develop political dialogue and practical cooperation with any nations and relevant organisations across the globe that share our interest in peaceful international relations.
      • We will be open to consultation with any partner country on security issues of common concern.
      • We will give our operational partners a structural role in shaping strategy and decisions on NATO-led missions to which they contribute.
      • We will further develop our existing partnerships while preserving their specificity.
    4. Cooperation between NATO and the United Nations continues to make a substantial contribution to security in operations around the world. The Alliance aims to deepen political dialogue and practical cooperation with the UN, as set out in the UN-NATO Declaration signed in 2008, including through:
      • enhanced liaison between the two Headquarters;
      • more regular political consultation; and
      • enhanced practical cooperation in managing crises where both organisations are engaged.
    5. An active and effective European Union contributes to the overall security of the Euro-Atlantic area. Therefore the EU is a unique and essential partner for NATO. The two organisations share a majority of members, and all members of both organisations share common values. NATO recognizes the importance of a stronger and more capable European defence. We welcome the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, which provides a framework for strengthening the EU’s capacities to address common security challenges. Non-EU Allies make a significant contribution to these efforts. For the strategic partnership between NATO and the EU, their fullest involvement in these efforts is essential. NATO and the EU can and should play complementary and mutually reinforcing roles in supporting international peace and security. We are determined to make our contribution to create more favourable circumstances through which we will:
      • fully strengthen the strategic partnership with the EU, in the spirit of full mutual openness, transparency, complementarity and respect for the autonomy and institutional integrity of both organisations;
      • enhance our practical cooperation in operations throughout the crisis spectrum, from coordinated planning to mutual support in the field;
      • broaden our political consultations to include all issues of common concern, in order to share assessments and perspectives;
      • cooperate more fully in capability development, to minimise duplication and maximise cost-effectiveness.
    6. NATO-Russia cooperation is of strategic importance as it contributes to creating a common space of peace, stability and security. NATO poses no threat to Russia. On the contrary: we want to see a true strategic partnership between NATO and Russia, and we will act accordingly, with the expectation of reciprocity from Russia.
    7. The NATO-Russia relationship is based upon the goals, principles and commitments of the NATO-Russia Founding Act and the Rome Declaration, especially regarding the respect of democratic principles and the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of all states in the Euro-Atlantic area. Notwithstanding differences on particular issues, we remain convinced that the security of NATO and Russia is intertwined and that a strong and constructive partnership based on mutual confidence, transparency and predictability can best serve our security. We are determined to:
      • enhance the political consultations and practical cooperation with Russia in areas of shared interests, including missile defence, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, counter-piracy and the promotion of wider international security;
      • use the full potential of the NATO-Russia Council for dialogue and joint action with Russia.
    8. The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council and Partnership for Peace are central to our vision of Europe whole, free and in peace. We are firmly committed to the development of friendly and cooperative relations with all countries of the Mediterranean, and we intend to further develop the Mediterranean Dialogue in the coming years. We attach great importance to peace and stability in the Gulf region, and we intend to strengthen our cooperation in the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative. We will aim to:
      • enhance consultations and practical military cooperation with our partners in the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council;
      • continue and develop the partnerships with Ukraine and Georgia within the NATO-Ukraine and NATO-Georgia Commissions, based on the NATO decision at the Bucharest summit 2008, and taking into account the Euro-Atlantic orientation or aspiration of each of the countries;
      • facilitate the Euro-Atlantic integration of the Western Balkans, with the aim to ensure lasting peace and stability based on democratic values, regional cooperation and good neighbourly relations;
      • deepen the cooperation with current members of the Mediterranean Dialogue and be open to the inclusion in the Mediterranean Dialogue of other countries of the region;
      • develop a deeper security partnership with our Gulf partners and remain ready to welcome new partners in the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative.
    1. Unique in history, NATO is a security Alliance that fields military forces able to operate together in any environment; that can control operations anywhere through its integrated military command structure; and that has at its disposal core capabilities that few Allies could afford individually.
    2. NATO must have sufficient resources – financial, military and human – to carry out its missions, which are essential to the security of Alliance populations and territory. Those resources must, however, be used in the most efficient and effective way possible. We will:
      • maximise the deployability of our forces, and their capacity to sustain operations in the field, including by undertaking focused efforts to meet NATO’s usability targets;
      • ensure the maximum coherence in defence planning, to reduce unnecessary duplication, and to focus our capability development on modern requirements;
      • develop and operate capabilities jointly, for reasons of cost-effectiveness and as a manifestation of solidarity;
      • preserve and strengthen the common capabilities, standards, structures and funding that bind us together;
      • engage in a process of continual reform, to streamline structures, improve working methods and maximise efficiency.
    1. We, the political leaders of NATO, are determined to continue renewal of our Alliance so that it is fit for purpose in addressing the 21st Century security challenges. We are firmly committed to preserve its effectiveness as the globe’s most successful political-military Alliance. Our Alliance thrives as a source of hope because it is based on common values of individual liberty, democracy, human rights and the rule of law, and because our common essential and enduring purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members. These values and objectives are universal and perpetual, and we are determined to defend them through unity, solidarity, strength and resolve.
    • It reconfirms the bond between our nations to defend one another against attack, including against new threats to the safety of our citizens.
    • It commits the Alliance to prevent crises, manage conflicts and stabilize post-conflict situations, including by working more closely with our international partners, most importantly the United Nations and the European Union.
    • It offers our partners around the globe more political engagement with the Alliance, and a substantial role in shaping the NATO-led operations to which they contribute.
    • It commits NATO to the goal of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons – but reconfirms that, as long as there are nuclear weapons in the world, NATO will remain a nuclear Alliance.
    • It restates our firm commitment to keep the door to NATO open to all European democracies that meet the standards of membership, because enlargement contributes to our goal of a Europe whole, free and at peace.
    • It commits NATO to continuous reform towards a more effective, efficient and flexible Alliance, so that our taxpayers get the most security for the money they invest in defence.
  2. We, the Heads of State and Government of the NATO nations, are determined that NATO will continue to play its unique and essential role in ensuring our common defence and security. This Strategic Concept will guide the next phase in NATO’s evolution, so that it continues to be effective in a changing world, against new threats, with new capabilities and new partners:

    The citizens of our countries rely on NATO to defend Allied nations, to deploy robust military forces where and when required for our security, and to help promote common security with our partners around the globe. While the world is changing, NATO’s essential mission will remain the same: to ensure that the Alliance remains an unparalleled community of freedom, peace, security and shared values.

„By 2020 Nigeria will be a member of 20 most industrialized countries” , declares H.E. Ambassador Mba Ama Mba , Ambassador of Nigeria in dialogue with Professor Anton Caragea PhD

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„By 2020 Nigeria will be a member of 20 most industrialized countries” , declares H.E. Ambassador Mba Ama Mba , Ambassador of Nigeria in dialogue with Professor Anton Caragea PhD 

                                                                                                                                                          President of Federal Republic of Nigeria Dr. Goodluck Jonathan                         

What is the significance of 1-th of October in the history of Nigeria?

Why it was chosen as a National Day?

 

                                                                                                                  H.E. Ambassador Mba Ama Mba , Ambassador of Nigeria in dialogue with Professor Anton Caragea PhD

First of October  1960 is the day when Nigeria gained his independence from British Colonial Masters, before this date the political entity known today as Nigeria was created in 1914 by the amalgamation of North and Southern British Protectorates. From this day of 1-th of October Nigeria took her destiny fully and firmly into her hands as political leadership came to be exercise by his own citizens, freely elected also by his on citizens in universal suffrage. From this day forward Nigeria continued to build here national unity and to unify several national groups into one united national state. This was, is and will for ever be our mission.    This year being 50 years from independence this date is even more important and celebrated.

 

How would your Excellency describe the present day relation between Romania and Nigeria on political, culture ,economy?

The diplomatic relations between Nigeria and Romania has been cordial at political level. However there is need for improvement especially among high level officials. Consultations are going to actualize some treaties signed earlier that need taking cognizance of the new realities of Romania becoming an EU member. One of this is the Agreement between Governments of Romania and Federal Republic of Nigeria on cooperation on military field. Top officials of the two countries meet in Bucharest early this month and harmonized the draft. It is hoped that Ministries of Defense of two countries will sign it early in the next year. We have also in the cultural field Nigerian artist resident in Bucharest that held several exposition showcasing Nigerian and Romanian themes. These have been well received by the Romanian public and foreigners alike.

Nigeria today and Nigeria of tomorrow, how is developing and changing the most populated country of African continent?

We Nigerians and our government we have done to outstanding things; first he adopted a zero tolerance policy on corruption and shaped a policy based on seven programs of economical and infrastructure development of the country.

Our  visionary government has establish a long term plan called Nigeria 2020 in order to transformed the Nigerian economy as to be one of the 20 most industrialized country by this period end . The aim is that in 2020 we will have a GDP of 900 billion and an income per capita of 4.000 dollars. This is a firm intention of transforming Nigeria economically, politically socially and cultural. Our country also has undergone a complete resolution of the Niger Delta Conflict establishing a special minister for the developing of the region and granting an amnesty for the misguided rebels. The former combatants accepted this amnesty and lay down there arms. A program of rehabilitation and social inclusion has also being established for them. This recent evolution will reassure all investors, including Romanians that we are having a secure climate for there investments. Plus, as a result of our  government efforts Nigeria was elected with a high majority as a non-permanent member of the Security Council at United Nations.  Furthermore our country was selected for here stability to host the International Youth Soccer Championship by the FIFA.

What is your Excellency message for the Romanian people at this anniversary time for Nigeria?

How can we describe the development of Nigeria to Romanians for a better common understanding?

It is in the same time easy and difficult to make such a declaration. Nigeria and Romania has gone a long way from establishing diplomatic relations. Political, cultural and economic relations and the quantum of our bilateral relations are continually developing. Romania is a friendly country that assured the instructions for many young Nigerians in his learning institution. My message is that these relations could be foster in our mutual interest. Romania has the technological capacity that Nigeria needs to exploit fully here industrial, agricultural, oil and solid natural reserves. We appeal to Romanians to open there hearts and minds in order to cooperate with Nigerians counterparts to exploit this enormous bilateral potential.   

In order to do this we have organized a strong Nigerian delegation that visited Romania and was well received by the Romanian Chambers of Commerce and by government authorities. The understandings reach then could be actualized in the nearest future. The area on which we must work now is the tourism, an area where Nigeria has enormous potential and we are warmly inviting Romanians to enjoy the friendship, human warm and hospitality of Nigerians. We have in Nigeria festivals and event throughout the year and on our land the sun is shining all year long. 

   

VISIT OF EUROPEAN DELEGATION IN KOREA

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PROFESSOR ANTON CARAGEA, PRESIDENT OF EUROPEAN COUNCIL ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS VISITS KOREA

Between 23 of September and 5 of October 2010 in the framework of Next Generation Leaders Visit Korea Program, Professor Anton Caragea, President of European Council on International Relations of European Union was invited for an official information visit in the Republic of Korea. The invitation was made by Dr. Soogil Young, Chairman of the Presidential Commission, President of National Strategy Institute, and Chairman of Korean National Committee for Pacific Economic Cooperation.  The visit included a complex program of political, economic and cultural visits destined to offer to Professor Anton Caragea a complete image of today situation in Korea and also a chance to meeting key politic and economic leaders interested in cooperation with European Union .

  The visit included dialogue and briefings at Korea Energy Economics Institute , Seoul Digital Media City , Presidential Committee on Seoul G20 Summit , Korea Creative Energy Content, Presidential Council on National Branding , Korean Parliament Foreign Policy Committee ,Electronic Telecommunication Research Institute, Daedeok Innopolis , Korean Institute of Science and Technology , Hyundai Heavy Industries .

In light of his successful contribution to Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE- Bucharest Conference 2010) Professor Anton Caragea was asked to deliver a key note speech for Presidential Committee on Seoul G20 Summit to explain how it created a diplomatic success and what lesson could be learned for G20 Summit. Another speech was held at Presidential Council for National Branding where Professor Anton Caragea highlighted his creation: European and Romanian Strategy for National Branding.

The program included also extensive traveling to Korea from Seoul to Ulsan, Bulguska , Seokguram Grotto , Chumsung Dae and a variety of art, entertainment spectacles destined to offer to Professor Anton Caragea an image of historic and cultural treasures of Korea.

 

Professor Anton Caragea greeted by President of Korea Energy Economics Institute

 

Professor Anton Caragea signing ceremony in the Personality Book at Presidential Council on National Branding

Professor Anton Caragea address to Presidential Committee on Seoul G20 Summit

Professor Anton Caragea greeted by H.E.  Jong Wook President of Korean Parliament Foreign Policy Committee

Visiting Hyundai Heavy Industries

Professor Anton Caragea and President of Ulsan International Exhibition Center   

WHAT IF SARKOZY GOES CRAZY ? ask FIDEL CASTRO

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THE INFINITE HYPOCRISY OF THE WEST by Fidel Castro

In defence of humanity

Although several articles on this subject were published before and after September  1st, 2010, on that day the Mexican daily La Jornada published one of great impact entitled El holocausto gitano: ayer y hoy (The gypsies’ holocaust: yesterday and today) which reminds us of a truly tragic history.  Without adding or deleting a single word from the information contained in the article, I will quote some lines referring to some events that are really touching. Neither the West nor -most of all- its colossal media apparatus have said a single word about them.

“1496: boom of humanist thinking.  The Rom peoples (gypsies) from Germany are declared traitors to the Christian nations, spies paid by the Turkish, carriers of the plague, witches and warlocks, bandits and children kidnappers.

“1710: century of Enlightenment and rationale.  An edict ordered that adult gypsies from Prague be hanged without any previous trial.  Young persons and women were mutilated. In Bohemia their left ear were cut off; in Moravia, their right ear.

“1899: climax of modernity and progress.  The police of Bavaria founded the Special Section for Gypsies’ Affairs.  In 1929, the section was promoted to the category of National Central section and was moved to Munich.  In 1937 it was based in Berlin.  Four years later, half a million gypsies died in the concentration camps of Central and Eastern Europe.”

“In her PhD’s thesis, Eva Justin (assistant of Dr. Robert Ritter of the Racial Research Section of the Ministry of Health of Germany), asserted that gypsies’ blood was extremely harmful to the purity of the German race. Someone called Dr. Portschy sent a memorandum to Hitler suggesting that gypsies should be submitted to forced labor and mass sterilization because they jeopardized the pure blood of the German peasantry.“The gypsies, who were labeled as inveterate criminals, started to be arrested en masse, and as from 1938 they were put into special blocks at the Buchenwald, Mauthausen, Gusen, Dautmergen, Natzweiler and Flossenburg camps.“In a concentration camp he owned in Ravensbruck, Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Gestapo (SS), created a space to sacrifice gypsy women who were submitted to medical experiments.  One hundred and twenty zingari girls were sterilized.  Gypsy women married to non-gypsy men were sterilized at the Dusseldorf-Lierenfeld hospital.“Thousands of gypsies were deported from Belgium, the Netherlands and France to the Polish concentration camp of Auschwitz.  In his memoirs, Rudolf Hoess (commander of Auschwitz) wrote that among the gypsies deported there were old people almost one hundred years of age, pregnant women and a large number of children.“At the ghetto of Lodz (Poland) […] none of the 5 000 gypsies survived.”“In Yugoslavia, gypsies and Jews were equally killed in the forest of Jajnice.  Farmers still remember the cries of the gypsy children who were taken to the places of execution.” “At the extermination camps, only the love of gypsies for music was at times a source of comfort.  In Auschwitz, starving and infested with lice, they gathered together to play music and encouraged children to dance.  But the courage of gypsy guerrillas who fought alongside the Polish resistance in the region of Nieswiez was also legendary.”Music was the factor that kept them together and helped them to survive, just as much as religion was for Christians, Jews and Muslims.

The successive articles published by La Jornada as from the end of August have reminded us of events that were almost forgotten about what happened to the gypsies in Europe.  After having been affected by Nazism, they were consigned to oblivion after the Nuremberg trials in the years 1945 and 1946.The German government headed by Konrad Adenauer declared that the extermination of the gypsies before 1943 was a result of the State’s legal policies.  Those who had been affected on that same year did not receive any compensation. Robert Ritter, a Nazi expert in the extermination of gypsies, was set free.  Thirty nine years later in 1982, when most of the affected persons had already passed away, the government recognized their right to compensation.More than 75 per cent of the gypsies, whose total number is estimated to be between 12 and 14 million, live in Central and Eastern Europe.  Only in Tito’s socialist Yugoslavia, gypsies were recognized the same rights as the Croatian, Albanian and Macedonian minorities.The Mexican newspaper described as “particularly perverse” the mass deportation of gypsies to Romania and Bulgaria ordered by the government of Sarkozy –a Jew of Hungarian descent-; these are the exact words used by the newspaper.  Please do not take this as an act of irreverence on my part.

In Romania, the number of gypsies is estimated to be two million.The president of that country, Traian Basescu, a US ally and an illustrious member of NATO, called a woman journalist a “filthy gypsy”.  As can be observed, this is an extremely delicate person who speaks in a polite language.

The website univision.com posted some comments about the demonstrations against the deportation of gypsies and the “xenophobia” in France.  According to AFP, around “130 demonstrations should take place in France as well as in front of the French embassies in several European Union countries, with the support of tens of human rights organizations, trade unions and left wing and ecologist parties”.  The extensive report refers to the participation of well known cultural personalities such as Jane Birkin and the film-maker Agnes Jaoui and reminded readers that Jane “together with Stephane Hessel, a former member of the resistance against the Nazi occupation of France (1940-1944), was part of the group that later on met with the advisors to the minister of Immigration Eric Besson.

“‘It was a dialogue of the deaf, but it is good that this took place, for it showed that most of the population was enraged at that nauseating policy’, said a spokesperson of the network ‘Education Without Borders…” Other news about this thorny issue come from Europe: “Yesterday the European Parliament put France and Nicholas Sarkozy on the spot for having deported thousands of Romanian and Bulgarian gypsies during a tense debate in which the attitudes of  José Manuel Durão Barroso and the Commission were described as  scandalous and ridiculous for their apparent pusillanimity and for failing to condemn Paris decisions as illegal and contrary to community rights”, according to an article by Ricardo Martínez de Rituerto published by El País.com.

La Jornada published in another article impressive social data.  Neo-natal mortality among the gypsy population is nine times as much the European average and the life expectancy rate is hardly above 50 years of age. Before that, on August 29, it had reported that “although there have been plenty of criticisms –from the European Union institutions as well as from the Catholic church, the United Nations and the broad spectrum of pro-immigrants organizations- Sarkozy insists in expelling and deporting hundreds of citizens from Bulgaria and Romania –and therefore, European citizens- using as an excuse the alleged ‘criminal’ character of these citizens.”

“It is difficult to believe that in the year 2010 –concludes La Jornada- after the terrible past Europe had with racism and intolerance, it is still possible to criminalize an entire ethnic group by labeling it as a social problem.” “Indifference, or even consent towards the actions carried out by the French police today and the Italian police yesterday –more European, in general terms- leave the most optimist analyst speechless.”

Suddenly, while I wrote this Reflection, I remembered that France is the third nuclear power in the planet, and that Sarkozy also had a briefcase with the keys required to launch one of the more than 300 bombs he had.  Is there any moral or ethical rational in launching an attack against Iran, a country condemned for its alleged intention of manufacturing this kind of weapon? Where are the good sense and the logic of that policy?

Let us assume that Sarkozy all of a sudden goes crazy, as it seems to be the case.  What would the UN Security Council do with Sarkozy and his briefcase?

What will happen if the French extreme right decides to force Sarkozy to maintain a racist policy, opposite to the norms that prevail within the European Community?

Could the UN Security Council respond to those two questions?

The absence of truth and the prevalence of deception is the biggest tragedy in our dangerous nuclear age.

 Fidel Castro Ruz